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Bright Ideas of the Dark Ages: Reference Materials

Who says nothing happened during the Dark Ages? In this pathfinder, you will find resources on medieval innovations.

About Reference

Reference materials are a great way to get an overview of your topic. They do not generally circulate outside of the library, but you can make copies of important content using the copier by Ms. Foust Colburn's office. 
Reference materials include:

  • dictionaries
  • encyclopedias
  • directories
  • biographical sources
  • geographical sources
  • ready reference materials

When using these sources, start with the index (often in the last volume if the material is a multi-volume set). You can also try the table of contents or the appropriate volume for your subject's name if the resource is arranged alphabetically.


Don't forget reference books online!

Oxford Reference Online

Salem History

History Reference Center

Library Catalog

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Featured Medieval References


Tommaso di Modena Painting, 14th Century


Mechanical Clock

Built 1410, at the Town Hall in Prague.